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Organic Farming

24/11/2021

Organic Agriculture/Pertanian Organi (PO) = Natural Harmony Farming/Petanian Selaras Alam (PSA)

BITRA Indonesia as a social, non-profit institution has special attention in the agricultural sector. Especially agricultural practices that participate in maintaining good natural and environmental conditions or commonly called sustainable agriculture with the concept of organic farming/agriculture in harmony with nature.

Departing from the Position Paper of the Indonesian Organic Alliance (AOI), where BITRA Indonesia is a member for the North Sumatra region, the position paper was formulated at the National Organic Agriculture Congress on November 4-8, 2008 in Yogyakarta.

We have known the forerunner of organic agriculture for a long time, since the science of farming is known to humans. At that time everything was done traditionally and using natural ingredients. In line with the development of agricultural science and the explosion of the human population, the need for food also increases. At that time, the green revolution in Indonesia, which was famous for being self-sufficient in food, gave significant results to the fulfillment of food needs. Where the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, planting of high yielding varieties, the use of pesticides, land intensification and others have increased.

However, later found various problems due to mismanagement of agricultural land. Pollution of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and others due to the excess use of these materials has an impact on the decline in environmental quality and human health due to the constant contamination of these synthetic materials. Understanding of the dangers of synthetic chemicals in the long term began to be realized so that alternatives were sought for farming that could produce products that were free from synthetic chemical contamination and maintain a healthier environment.

Since then, we have started to look back at natural farming methods (back to nature). Modern organic farming is very different from the natural agriculture of the past. In modern organic agriculture, technology is needed for farming, providing organic fertilizers, controlling pests and diseases using biological agents or microbes and good management for the success of organic farming. Organic agriculture is defined as “a holistic and integrated agricultural production system, by optimizing the health and productivity of agro-ecosystems naturally, so as to produce sufficient, quality, and sustainable food and fiber”.

Furthermore, IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) explains that organic agriculture is a holistic agricultural system that supports and accelerates biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activities. Certification of organic products produced, storage, processing, post-harvest and marketing must comply with the standards set by the standardization body. In this case, the use of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) is not allowed in every stage of organic farming from production to post-harvest.

Organic farming is based on the following 4 principles:

  1. Health principles
  2. Ecological principles
  3. The principle of justice
  4. The principle of protection.
    Each principle is stated through a statement accompanied by an explanation. These principles must be used in their entirety and made into ethical principles that inspire action.

Health Principles. Organic agriculture must preserve and improve the health of soil, plants, animals, humans and the earth as one and indivisible. This principle shows that the health of each individual and community cannot be separated from the health of the ecosystem. In particular, organic farming is intended to produce high quality and nutritious food that supports the maintenance of health and well-being. In view of this, the use of fertilizers, pesticides, animal medicines and food additives must be avoided which can have a detrimental effect on health.

Ecological Principles. This principle is based on the ecological systems and cycles of life. Organic agriculture can achieve ecological balance through the pattern of agricultural systems, building habitats, maintaining genetic diversity and agriculture. Those who produce, process, market or consume organic products must protect and benefit the environment in general, including soil, climate, habitat, biodiversity, air and water.

Principles of Justice. Organic farming must build relationships that are able to ensure fairness related to the environment and the opportunity to live together. Organic farming should provide a good quality of life for everyone involved, contributing to food sovereignty and poverty reduction. Organic farming aims to produce sufficient and good quality food and other products.

Protection Principle. Organic agriculture must be managed carefully and responsibly to protect the health and well-being of present and future generations and the environment. Organic agriculture must be able to prevent the occurrence of adverse risks by applying appropriate technology and rejecting technologies that cannot be predicted, such as genetic engineering. All decisions must take into account the values ​​and needs of all aspects that may be affected, through transparent and participatory processes.

The four principles above are the basis for the growth and development of organic agriculture, and are a vision to improve all aspects of agriculture globally. This will certainly inspire the organic movement in all its diversity and serve as a guide for the development of IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement) positions, programs and standards around the world.

In general, organic farming is a public choice which is expected to be widely accepted by farmers. This is because the application of organic agriculture which is sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture has the following advantages:

  1. Able to increase agricultural production and ensure food security in the country.
  2. Able to produce purchased food with high nutritional quality and suppress the content of harmful chemical and bacterial contaminants.
  3. Does not reduce and damage soil fertility, does not increase erosion and suppresses dependence on non-renewable natural resources. 4. does not endanger the health of people who work or live in an agricultural environment and who consume organic agricultural products.
  4. Preserving and improving the quality of the living environment in agricultural and rural areas, as well as conserving biological natural resources and their ecosystems.
  5. Able to support and sustain the life of rural communities.

Dependence on chemical fertilizers causes farmers’ operational costs to be expensive and soil fertility decreases. For non-organic agriculture that relies on urea fertilizer, currently it takes up to 1.2 tons of urea per ha of rice fields per growing season. In fact, less than ten years ago, less than half of urea was needed to obtain the same rice yield.

Dependence on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. This of course can have a negative impact on the sustainability of local agriculture and the preservation of nature. With the dependence on urea as the main fertilizer, the production costs will increase day by day. This is because land that is given urea fertilizer will reduce its fertility and carrying capacity in producing nutrients naturally. The consequence is that more and more urea will be needed every day in greater quantities. This prediction has been proven from the condition of the rice fields in Sragen. At the beginning of the organic planting process, the loose soil layer remains about 10 cm. After almost three years of organic farming efforts, currently the thickness of loose land has reached more than 30 cm. This is because organic fertilization with compost from animal manure has resulted in the presence of many micro-animals in the soil, such as worms and eels.

The 2010 Go Organic Policy, the growing awareness to go back to nature in the agricultural sector, has also occurred in the central government. At almost the same time, in 2001, the Ministry of Agriculture launched the 2010 Go Organic program. The vision set out in this medium-term strategic plan is to make Indonesia one of the largest organic food producers in the world. This is certainly not a joke because the natural and cultural potential of our society is still very supportive to realize this noble goal.

Therefore, the biggest challenge in the development of organic agriculture in the future is how to develop state policies that truly guarantee the existence of land and production facilities for organic agriculture, especially for poor farmers and create a conducive climate for trade in organic agricultural products with a dimension of justice. Especially with the current storm of “global financial crisis”, the choice to strengthen the agricultural sector which is the real sector becomes something that should be a rational choice for the government and will become an important political atmosphere in the future, especially for policy makers who will be elected in the 2009 General Election. later. The government that will be elected later is expected to clearly understand the challenges of this republic in strengthening the nation’s capacity in the midst of an increasingly worrying global arena.”

In North Sumatra, the concept of organic farming is not a new thing, several NGOs/NGOs together with their assisted farming communities have implemented

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Data Kelompok

Kab/Kota Lk Pr Jlh Jlh Kel
Langkat 173 142 315 12
Binjai 26 31 57 3
Deli Serdang 783 766 1549 31
Serdang Bedagai 815 620 1435 49
Tebing Tinggi 36 126 162 5
Batu Bara 26 170 196 5
Lab Batu Uatara 490 306 796 2
Jumlah 2349 2161 4510 107