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Mereka Harus Berjuang Hanya untuk Rp 1.000

06/01/2017 , ,
Pekerja Rumahan - Suryani (29) warga Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang, Sumatera Utara setiap hari bekerja memasukkan sedotan minuman kemasan ke dalam plastik selama sembilan hingga 12 jam per hari di rumahnya. Ia mendapat upah borongan Rp 8.000 untuk satu karung sedotan atau rata-rata sekitar Rp 200.000 per bulan. Hingga kini jutaan pekerja rumahan di tanah air belum terlindungi padahal sesuai UU 13/2003 mereka adalah pekerja yang seharusnya menerima upah layak dan mendapat jaminan social | KOMPAS/AUFRIDA WISMI WARASTRI

Pekerja Rumahan – Suryani (29) warga Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang, Sumatera Utara setiap hari bekerja memasukkan sedotan minuman kemasan ke dalam plastik selama sembilan hingga 12 jam per hari di rumahnya. Ia mendapat upah borongan Rp 8.000 untuk satu karung sedotan atau rata-rata sekitar Rp 200.000 per bulan. Hingga kini jutaan pekerja rumahan di tanah air belum terlindungi padahal sesuai UU 13/2003 mereka adalah pekerja yang seharusnya menerima upah layak dan mendapat jaminan social. | KOMPAS/AUFRIDA WISMI WARASTRI

KOMPAS – Pengetahuan dan jaringan menjadi kekuatan perempuan pekerja rumahan di Deli Serdang, Sumatera Utara. Dua tahun lalu, mereka hanya perempuan yang diam tak berdaya dengan upah seribu-dua ribu rupiah per satu kodi produk yang dikerjakan.

“Dulu, ngomong saja saya ini gemetaran,” kata Samsiah Harahap (32), penganyam kawat panggangan ikan warga Desa Tanjung Morawa B, Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang, Rabu (4/1/2017).

Ibu dua anak lulusan SMP itu sejak sepuluh tahun terakhir bekerja sebagai penganyam kawat panggangan ikan di rumahnya. Upahnya terakhir Rp 3.000 per kodi (20 unit) panggangan ikan. Seminggu sekali agen datang ke desanya membawa ribuan potongan kawat kecil dan besar.

Puluhan ibu di Desa Tanjung Morawa B akan mengambil kawat-kawat itu dan mengerjakan anyaman di rumah. Seminggu kemudian diambil agen, dibayar upah kerja, dan memberikan bahan baru yang harus dikerjakan. Kehidupan seperti itu terus berlangsung di Tanjung Morawa B hingga sekarang.

Upah Rp 9.000 per hari

Pengakuan Samsiah, sehari ia mampu mengerjakan hingga 3 kodi (60 unit) selama 9 jam. Ia mulai bekerja menganyam kawat sekitar pukul 10.00 setelah selesai memasak dan mencuci baju. Pekerjaan baru selesai pada tengah malam, diselingi istirahat makan dan bersih-bersih rumah. Upahnya Rp 9.000 sehari.

Jika pekerjaan itu dilakukan sebulan penuh dan produktivitas stabil, upahnya mencapai Rp 270.000 sebulan. Pekerjaan itu dilakoni di ruang tamu sekaligus ruang keluarganya sambil duduk beralas tikar plastik.

Kadang-kadang kawat menusuk atau menggores paha, jari, atau bagian tubuh lain. Tangannya kebas saking banyaknya kawat yang harus dibengkokkan, punggung dan lehernya pegal.

Suaminya, pekerja pabrik kayu, baru bisa membantu Samsiah memotong ujung-ujung kawat dan mengunci kawat dengan tang sepulang ia bekerja.

Suryani (29), ibu satu anak warga Desa Dagang Klambir, Dusun 3, Tanjung Morawa, melakukan pekerjaan rumahan sejak tiga tahun terakhir. Ia bekerja mengemas sedotan air minum dalam kemasan gelas. Tiap hari ia memilah 24 sedotan dari karung, memasukkan dalam plastik, melipat ujung plastik, lalu membakar ujung lipatan plastik dengan api lilin.

Untuk mengemas satu karung sedotan yang jumlahnya ribuan itu, ia mendapat upah Rp 8.000. Satu minggu ia bisa menyelesaikan 7 goni. Jika bekerja penuh sebulan, ia mendapatkan upah Rp 224.000. Dipotong biaya lilin Rp 10.000, upahnya menjadi Rp 214.000 per bulan.

Puluhan perempuan tetangga Suryani melakukan hal yang sama. Mereka bekerja dalam grup, satu grup ada 12 orang yang akan diberi 24 goni oleh agen dalam satu pekerjaan, yang oleh pekerja disebut satu trip. Dalam satu minggu ada tiga trip penyerahan pekerjaan.

Suryani mengatakan, pekerjaan itu harus dilakukan dengan telaten karena kadang-kadang tangannya terbakar lilin, punggungnya juga pegal karena terus menunduk. Pekerjaan itu dilakukan di lantai beralas tikar.

“Agen tidak pernah memperhatikan keselamatan kerja dan alat kerja, yang penting setoran lancar,” kata Suryani yang bekerja dari pukul 10.00 sampai pukul 22.00, diselingi istirahat makan dan mengawasi anak.

Ironinya, selama bekerja, ia tidak pernah mendapat bonus dari agen pemberi kerja. “Aduh! Satu botol sirup saat hari raya saja tidak pernah, apalagi bonus. Bahkan, untuk bertanya upah saja takut,” tutur Suryani.

Ratusan ribu

Diperkirakan ada ratusan ribu pekerja rumahan di Sumatera Utara dan jutaan di Indonesia yang bekerja seperti Suryani dan Samsiah. Mereka bekerja di rumah selama 9 jam hingga 12 jam.

Pekerjaan rumahan di Deli Serdang-Medan-Binjai antara lain pengupas bawang merah atau putih, pemotong ujung cabai kering yang digunakan untuk bahan dasar bumbu mi instan, pengupas kepala udang, dan penjahit kain perca untuk lap kapal. Masih banyak pekerjaan berupah rendah karena dianggap tidak penting. Upahnya rata-rata Rp 150.000-Rp 300.000 per bulan.

Koordinator Program Pendamping Pekerja Rumahan Bitra Indonesia, Erika Rosmawati Situmorang, mengatakan, sesuai dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan, pekerja rumahan masuk dalam kategori tenaga kerja yang harus mendapatkan upah layak dan jaminan sosial.

Mereka memiliki tugas, menerima penghasilan, dan terikat perjanjian kerja. Sayangnya, selama ini relasi pemberi kerja dan pekerja rumahan tidak diatur dalam regulasi pemerintah. Padahal, banyak produk yang dikerjakan itu adalah produk untuk ekspor.

Dua tahun lalu, para ibu atas pendampingan Bitra Indonesia membentuk Serikat Pekerja Rumahan Sejahtera (SPRS). Awalnya ada penolakan, termasuk Samsiah yang curiga ketika pendamping datang ke rumahnya. “Saya cuma temui di depan pintu,” kata Samsiah.

Ia juga sempat dilarang suami, tetapi diam-diam datang ke pelatihan dan membentuk Kelompok Penganyam Kawat Melati bersama temannya. Langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah meminta kenaikan upah kepada agen dan pemilik perusahaan.

Tahun 2002, upah penganyam kawat panggangan ikan hanya Rp 1.200 per kodi, tahun 2006 menjadi Rp 1.500 per kodi, tahun 2014 naik menjadi Rp 2.000 per kodi. “Memang ada kenaikan upah, tetapi cuma Rp 100 per tahun,” kata Samsiah.

Pekerja meminta kenaikan upah Rp 1.000. Perusahaan menolak. Pekerjaan dihentikan dua bulan dan dialihkan ke desa lain pada pertengahan 2015. Mereka tetap meminta kenaikan upah. Perusahaan akhirnya menyerah karena hasil kerja desa lain tidak sebagus hasil kerja mereka. Upah naik menjadi Rp 3.000 per kodi. Untuk anyaman panggangan besar upahnya menjadi Rp 5.000 per kodi.

“Meskipun upahnya masih sangat kecil, ini prestasi luar biasa buat kami bisa bernegosiasi dengan mereka,” kata Samsiah.

Situasi ini menyemangati mereka untuk mengajak teman-teman pekerja rumahan di desa lain berorganisasi dan mengikuti pelatihan. “Banyak pekerja rumahan yang nasibnya lebih buruk dari kami,” kata Mislam (47), penganyam panggangan ikan yang kini menjadi Ketua DPC SPRS Deli Serdang.

Ada yang bekerja menjahit sepatu. Sepatunya harus dijepit dengan lengan sampai lengannya bengkak, tetapi tidak ada biaya untuk berobat. Kini SPRS di Sumatera Utara memiliki 800 anggota yang terbagi dalam 19 sektor. Mereka tengah berjuang meloloskan Perda Perlindungan Pekerja Rumahan yang kini sudah masuk Program Legislasi Daerah Sumatera Utara.

Penulis: Aufrida Wismi Wirastri

Editor: Laksono Hari Wiwoho.

Sumber: www.kompas.com

Versi cetak artikel ini terbit di Harian Kompas edisi 5 Januari 2017, di halaman 1 dengan judul “Mereka Harus Berjuang Hanya untuk Rp 1.000“.

 

In English:

Home-based Female Workers
Struggling foto Just Rp 1,000

By Aufrida Wismi Warastri

Knowledge and networking are sources of strength for home-based female workers in Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. Two years ago, they were powerless, with paltry wages of between Rp 1,000 (7 US cents) and Rp 2,000 for every 20 products that they worked on.

Now, equipped with knowledge, they are able to improve their bargaining position. They have even pushed for the creation of a draft regional regulation on home-based workers at the North Sumatra Regional Legislatives Council (DPRD).

“I used to be nervous just to talk like this,” said Samsiah Harahap (32), a resident of Tanjung Morawa B village in Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang, on Wednesday (4/1/2017). Samsiah weaves traditional fish grills out of wires from her home.

The mother of two and a junior high school graduate has been in her current job for the past 10 years. She is currently paid Rp 3,000 for every 20 fish grills that she makes. Once a week, an agent comes to her home bringing her thousands of small and large wires to make the fish grills.

Dozens of women in Tanjung Morawa B village take the wires and weave them in their homes. A week later, the agent retrieves the woven fish grills, pays the women and gives them new wires to work with. Such is the daily life of local women in Tanjung Morawa B.

Paid Rp 9,000 per day

Samsiah said that she could make up to 60 fish grills in nine hours every day. She starts weaving the wires at 10 a.m. after she is done cooking and washing clothes. The day’s work is finished at around midnight, with several breaks in between to eat and clean the house. She is paid Rp 9,000 for a day’s work.

If she is continuously productive, she earns up to Rp 270,000 every month. She does the work while sitting on a plastic mat in her living room.

Sometimes, the wires scratch or cut her thighs and fingers. Her hands often go numb and her back and neck get tired due to the large amount of work that she does.

Samsiah’s husband, a worker at a local lumber mill, can only help her once he gets home. He usually helps by cutting the wires.

Suryani (29), a mother of one from the third hamlet in Dagang Klambir village, Tanjung Morawa, has worked from home for the last three years. She packs drinking straws for plastic water cups. Every day, she sorts 24 straws from a sack, puts them into their plastic packaging, folds the tip of the packaging and burns the tips with a candle.

She gets Rp 8,000 for every large sack containing thousands of drinking straws. She can finish seven sacks every week. For a month’s work, she receives Rp 224,000. Her net revenue is Rp 214,000, as she needs the remaining Rp 10,000 to buy candles.

Dozens of women in Suryani’s neighborhood are in this line of work. They work in groups. The agent brings 24 sacks in each delivery to a group of 12 workers. There are three deliveries each week.

Suryani said that concentration was needed for the work. She usually worked sitting on a floor mat in her living room. Sometimes, the candle flame burned her finger or her back got tired from stooping for too long.

“The agents never really care about work safety and our equipment. What’s important to them is that we finish our work on time,” said Suryani, adding that she usually worked from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., taking several snack breaks. She also had to supervise her children while she worked.

Ironically, she never receives a bonus from the agent who brings her work. “Oh, no! They have never given us even just a bottle of syrup on our religious holiday, let alone a bonus! I am afraid just to ask about my pay,” Suryani said.

Hundreds of thousands

It is estimated that there are hundreds of thousands of home-based workers like Samsiah and Suryani in North Sumatra, and a million in total across Indonesia. They work between nine and 12 hours a day.

Home-based jobs in Deli Serdang, Medan and Binjai include peeling shallots and red onions, cutting dried chili to go in instant noodles, peeling shrimp heads and tailoring used fabric for boat rags. There are many other menial jobs with low pay that are deemed unimportant. The average monthly pay is between Rp 150,000 and Rp 300,000.

Bitra Indonesia home-based worker counseling program coordinator Erika Rosmawati Situmorang said that according to Law No. 13/2003 on labor, home-based workers should be paid at least the minimum wage and receive social security.

They should have clear tasks, be paid and be bound by work contracts. Unfortunately, their relations with their employers had never been clearly regulated by the government. This was despite the fact they were working on export products.

Two years ago, with counseling from Bitra Indonesia, the local women established the Prosperous Home-Based Workers’ Union (SPRS). It was rejected in the beginning, including by Samsiah, who was suspicious of the counselor who came to her home. “I met the counselor at my front door,” she said.

Her husband also rejected the counselors’ efforts at first, but Samsiah quietly went to the training and then established the Melati Wire Weavers’ Group along with her friends. Her first step was to ask for a raise from the agent and the business owner.

In 2002, fish grill weavers like her only received Rp 1,200 for every 20 fish grills. The pay was raised to Rp 1,500 in 2006 and then to Rp 2,000 in 2014. There had been raises before, but they had only been Rp 100 each year, Samsiah said.

The workers asked for a Rp 1,000 raise. The company refused. The work was suspended for two months and diverted to other villages in mid-2015. The workers persisted with their request for more pay. The company finally relented as the work produced by the people in the other villages was not as good as theirs. Their pay was raised to Rp 3,000 for every 20 products. For large fish grills, they are paid Rp 5,000 for every 20 products.

“Despite our pay still being low, being able to negotiate with those people was a huge achievement for us,” Samsiah said.

Their success encouraged the local workers to ask their neighbors to join them, organize themselves and participate in training. “Many other home-based workers had worse fates than us,” said Mislam (47), a fish grill weaver and the head of the SPRS branch in Deli Serdang.

Some local workers sew shoes. They have to clamp the shoes between their arms while working, leading to many workers suffering from swollen arms but having no money to seek medical treatment. Nowadays, SPRS in North Sumatra has 800 members divided into 19 sectors. They are now fighting for the regional regulation on the protection of home-based workers that is currently deliberated by North Sumatra’s Regional Legislative Council.

Resources: http://print.kompas.com/baca/english/2017/01/05/Struggling-for-Just-Rp-1000

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Data Kelompok

Kab/Kota Lk Pr Jlh Jlh Kel
Langkat 173 142 315 12
Binjai 26 31 57 3
Deli Serdang 783 766 1549 31
Serdang Bedagai 815 620 1435 49
Tebing Tinggi 36 126 162 5
Batu Bara 26 170 196 5
Lab Batu Uatara 490 306 796 2
Jumlah 2349 2161 4510 107